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Refers to a food item, specifically pasta, rice, or vegetables, that is cooked until tender to the bite but not too soft.
A type of sponge cake made with egg whites, flour and sugar. What differentiates it from most cakes is that it uses zero butter.
Literally translates to “before the pasta.” Usually, a platter of cold hors-d’oeuvre that includes meats, olives, cheese, and vegetables.
Small dishes of light foods served before a meal or the main course. These may be hot or cold, plated or served as finger food.
The breeding, rearing, and farming of fish or shellfish.
An Italian short-grain rice high in starch.
Ingredients, such as herbs, spices, vegetables, citrus fruits, wines, and vinegar, cooked in oil as a flavor foundation of a dish.
Microscopic organisms. Some possess positive properties, such as food preservation through fermentation, while others can cause food-borne illnesses when contaminated foods are ingested.
A long and narrow loaf of French bread.
A method of preparing food using dry heat, normally from an oven.
A method of cooking food by grilling over a wood or charcoal fire. Usually, some sort of marinade, sauce, or dry rub is applied on the food item during cooking.
A cooking technique wherein juices or melted fat is poured over meat to retain its moisture.
A thin dough composed of a mixture of flour and liquid, sometimes with the inclusion of other ingredients. Typically used in making cakes, quick breads, pancakes, and crepes.
The act of rapidly mixing or stirring ingredients until they are very smooth and well-blended.
A process in cooking that involves briefly boiling food, usually vegetables and fruits, in scalding hot water and subsequently removed and quickly plunged in ice cold water in order to halt the cooking process.
The process of uniformly mixing two or more ingredients, usually with a blender or a food processor, until they are thoroughly combined and smooth in nature.
A method of cooking food by immersing them in water or other forms of liquid at or above the boiling point (212°F/ 100°C).
More commonly known as broth, a bouillon is a savory liquid composed of bones, meat, or vegetables simmered in boiling water.
The process of partially cooking food until its surface is brown.
A type of icing or filling composed of a mixture of butter, sugar, and eggs or custard. Used to garnish cakes and pastries.
A fermented dairy drink with a slightly sour flavor similar to that of yogurt. Traditionally, the liquid by-product of butter churning, now usually made by culturing skim milk.
Hearty French cuisine based on southern influences; signature ingredients include spices, dark roux, pork fat, file powder, green peppers, onions, and celery.
A type of sweet food containing flour, sugar, salt, egg, milk, liquid, flavoring, shortening, and leavening agent. Usually created through baking.
A unit of energy commonly used in nutrition. It is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1°C.
An Italian meal that consists of a folded oven-baked pizza stuffed with meats, vegetables, or cheese, folded over to resemble a large turnover, then baked or deep-fried.
A type of small and commonly decorated hors-d’oeuvre consisting of a small piece of bread or toast, often cut in a decorative shape, garnished with a savory spread or topping.
The process of browning sugar with high heat. The temperature range in which sugar caramelizes is approximately 320° to 360°F/ 160° to 182°C.
A lidded, large and deep cooking pan used in an oven or for serving. Foods cooked inside a casserole are also referred to as such.
A metal cooking or serving pan combined with a stand and an alcohol burning containing chafing fuel below it. Commonly used to keep foods warm and to cook foods on a tableside or during buffet service.
A French sparkling white wine produced in the Champagne region. Often the term is usually and erroneously applied to any general sparkling wine, when in truth real Champagne can only come from the region of France itself.
The branch of cooking dedicated to the preparation of pork and other meat items, such as hams, terrines, sausages, pates, and other forcemeats.
A light, fine mesh gauze used for straining everything from homemade cheese to jelly and broths.
A cutting tool used in food preparation; its blade is usually between 8 and 14 inches/20 and 36 cm long.
A very light and spongy cake made by the foaming method that is made with vegetable oil, eggs, sugar, flour, and baking powder.
A type of fruit from plants in the genus Capsicum, used fresh or dry as a seasoning. Chiles come in many variations, such as jalapeno, serrano, poblano, and in varying degrees of spiciness.
A spicy stew made from a mixture of chilli peppers, meat, and sometimes beans and tomatoes.
Dried chiles that have been pulverized into a fine powder, often with other ground spices and herbs added.
To cut into pieces of roughly the same size squares.
A flavorful substance used to add more flavor to food. Common examples include salt and ketchup.
To air out a particularly hot food on a rack, after cooking or baking, until it feels cool.
To take out the middle section or ‘core’ of a piece of fruit.
A thick, white, and smooth liquid; often used to adorn desserts or as a cooking ingredient.
To smash with a spoon or dull object, then finely chopped.
To cut into squares of even size.
A method of cooking food by submersion in hot fat or oil.
Food cooked with seasonings such as mustard, vinegar, and possibly other seasonings.
To cut ingredients into smaller cubes with similar sizes.
It is the plate through which foods pass in a meat grinder before a blade cuts them. The fineness of the grind is determined by the size of the die’s opening.
A cooking technique wherein food is coated with a dry ingredient such as flour or bread crumbs.
The processing of preparing a food item for cooking. An example of this would be gutting, scaling, and cutting the unwanted parts of a fish before cooking.
Lightly sprinkling something with a powdery ingredient like flour or powdered sugar.
A large metal pot, usually of cast iron, with a lid used for stewing and braising on the stovetop or in the oven.
Beaten eggs (whole eggs, yolks, or whites) usually mixed with a liquid, like milk or water, brushed over baked goods before baking.
A concentrated form of flavoring extracted , usually achieved through infusion or distillation. Examples include vanilla and other extracts, concentrated stocks, and fumets.
Unsweetened canned milk that had 60% of its water content removed before canning.
A machine used in making and shaping pasta, wherein noodle dough is pushed out through perforated plates as opposed to simply being rolled.
The process of cutting, boning, and portioning large cuts of meat to a recipe’s specifications.
A Latin word that translates to “meal” or “flour”. It’s the name of a form of milled wheat in the United States
A steak cut of beef from the small end of the tenderloin.
A large oval-shaped kettle used for cooking whole fish such as salmon, hake, and pike among others.
A powder blend of cinnamon, cloves, fennel, star anise, and Szechwan peppercorns.
Dishes named after famous Italian Florentine, Catherine de’ Medici, who brought over her best Florentine cooks to Paris after marrying Henry II. The term "Florentine" is especially used in the presence of spinach or cheese.
Using a spatula to gently combine a light, airy mixture with a heavier mixture by, moving down-across-up-and-over.
An icing used primarily for pastry and confectionery made with sugar, water, and glucose.
A crank-operated strainer with a curved blade that’s used to puree soft foods.
A machine that is used for a variety of tasks, including chopping, grinding, pureeing, emulsifying, kneading, slicing, shredding, and cutting into julienne. It contains interchangeable blades and disks and a removable bowl and lid separate from the main motor.
A filling, glaze, icing, or sauce for pastries made from chocolate and cream. Normally used to make truffles and other chocolate treats, or as a filling for inside cakes and pastries.
A cool well ventilated area otherwise known as a pantry chef/station where food is prepared/stored.
A cold soup of Spanish origin made from raw blended vegetables, typically tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, and onions.
A shiny surface applied onto food typically by brushing with sauce, aspic, icing, or another appareil.
The act of rubbing something against a rough surface with tiny holes, usually a grater, into small pieces
The process of lightly oiling a surfacewith butter, oil or shortening.
A heavy metal surface built into a stove which is often fitted with a handle and is a surface upon which food is cooked upon.
A form of cooking that involves dry heat being applied on a food item by a radiant heat source placed below the food. It also refers to the equipment upon which the grilling is done which may be fueled by gas, electricity, charcoal, or wood.
A ridged skillet used to simulate grilling on a stovetop.
A soup popular in the U.S. state of Louisiana consisting primarily of a strongly-flavored stock, meat or shellfish, a thickener, and vegetables namely celery, bell peppers, and onions.
A seasoned dish made of chopped meat, usually with potatoes and/or other vegetables, bound with a sauce, and sautéed. Could also mean to chop.
First aid maneuver for choking, involving the application of sudden and upward pressure on the upper abdomen to force a foreign object from the windpipe.
Formerly known as Dutch sauce, it is an emulsion sauce made with a vinegar reduction, egg yolks, and melted butter flavored with lemon juice.
A French term which literally translates to “outside the work.” An appetizer or primer.
The observed conditions and practices that are useful in maintaining one’s health and safety. This includes maintaining the cleanliness of your kitchen as well as your personal cleanliness.
Steeping ingredient in liquid to extract its flavor. Also refers to, the liquid resulting from this process.
A tool used to measure the internal temperature of foods that produces an instant temperature read-out.
Also known as a french cut, it refers to a type of knife cut wherein the food item is cut into long thin strips.
A type of porridge made from buckwheat groats which have first been roasted, then soaked and finally slowly simmered until soft.
The act of massaging and working dough until it is thoroughly mixed and it stays together in a smooth and elastic form.
Food that is prepared in the strict accordance of Jewish dietary laws.
Pure, refined salt ideal for drawing out moisture from meat due to the size of its crystals. It’s also used for pickling because it does not contain magnesium carbonate and thus does not cloud brine solutions.
Semi-soft white pig with high saturated fatty acid content and zero trans fat. Typically used as a cooking fat or shortening, or a spread like butter.
The seeds of certain plants in the Fabaceae family, including beans and peas. A trait all legumes share is that they grow in a type of pod like peanuts and peas.
A name used to refer to the smallest variety of hard-clams, often eaten steamed, grilled, or raw.
Milk that contains around 0.1 percent fat.
A filet of salted salmon.
A four-sided knife cut in which a food item, normally fruit or thin pieces of meat, are cut into small diamond shapes.
A small cake or cookie made from nut paste (usually almond), sugar, and egg white.
A sauce, typically infused with herbs, spices, oil, and vinegar, used before cooking to flavor and moisten foods; may be liquid or dry.
A sweet dessert primarily made of sugar or honey, ground almonds, and egg whites. Typically used to fill and decorate pastries.
Also known as the head waiter, waiter captain, or dining room manager, informally called simple maitre d’. In charge of overseeing the dining-room or front-of-the-house staff.
A very small and round portion of food.
The process of liquifying an ingredient or food item in a hot pan.
A type of dessert or candy that consists of egg whites that have been beaten until stiff, and then sweetened and possibly baked until stiff. Normally associated with Italian, French, and Swiss cuisine.
To chop very finely.
A thick Italian vegetable soup that typically includes dried beans, onions, celery, and pasta.
A French culinary term referring to kitchen preparations and essential pre-cooking set up.
The process of combining ingredients, usually done with a spoon or electric mixer, so they are all evenly blended together.
A French term which literally translates to “in the style of” or “according in the fashion of”. Examples of this term being used in the context of cooking are boeuf a la mode is braised beef; pie a la mode is served with ice cream.
A softly prepared dish that incorporates air bubbles and made with beaten egg whites and/or whipped cream prepared until either light and fluffy or creamy and thick. Mousse can also be either sweet or savory.
A puff pastry made up of layers of puff pastry rectangles and filled with pastry cream and glazed with fondant.
A small and young potato with thin, waxy skin that is usually prepared by boiling or steaming and is often eaten with its skin.
The processes by which an organism absorbs and uses food necessary for health and growth.
A cooking tool with a long, bent ,dull blade or paddle set in a short handle, used to turn or lift foods from grills, broilers, or griddles.
An egg dish prepared by frying beaten eggs with oil or butter. Commonly folded and filled with extra ingredients like cheese, vegetables, and meat or a combination of each.
A Spanish dish made of rice cooked with onion, tomato, garlic, vegetables, and various meats, including chicken, chorizo, shellfish, and possibly other types. Typically made with a specialized pan known as a paella pan.
A dry cooking method performed on a pan and requiring minimal oil or fat.
A brown sauce extracted from a meat’s pan drippings that cultivate when roasting and combined with a roux or other starch and additional stock.
A dry cooking method wherein food is cooked in a hot pan with little or no fat or oil.
Referring to a whole fish prepped for cooking, which includes trimming, scaling, gutting, boning or filleting the fish.
A method of cooking done by placing food directly in a very small amount of liquid inside a covered pan over direct heat.
A grease and heat resistant paper used in lining baking pans, cooking items en papillote, and covering food items.
A cooking technique involving partially cooking a food item before storing or finishing off by another method.
An Italian dish comprised of noodles made from a dough and water or eggs that are kneaded, rolled, and cut into strips, then cooked in boiling water.
A sanitation technique involving heating milk products in order to eliminate microorganisms that are possible contaminants within milk.
A puch typically made of plastic, canvas, or nylon fitted with a small tip with a tiny opening used to squeeze out icings and pureed foods.
A tool resembling a shovel used by bakers and pâtissiers to slide loaves of bread, pizzas, pastries and other goods into or out of an oven. Could also refer to the act of removing the skin of a food item such as an apple or a potato.
A thick green paste made up of a pureed mixture of basil, garlic, European nuts, and oil. Typically used as a sauce for pasta and other foods and as garnish for soup.
A bite-sized, iced and decorated cake.
A very thin pastry made from unleavened dough layered with butter, bread or cake crumbs. Also called filo.
A collection or mixture of herbs and spices used for seasoning in the pickling process. Common pickling spices include dill weed and/or seed, coriander seed, cinnamon stick, peppercorns, bay leaves, and others.
A method of cooking rice or other types of grain that involves briefly sautéeing the grain in butter, then simmered in seasoned stock or water. Also called pilau, plilaw, pullao, pilav.
A cooking technique that involves cooking food submerged in simmering liquid, like water, stock, milk, or even wine.
A dish of boiled cornmeal mush that can be served as a porridge or can also be allowed to cool and later solidify into a loaf.
A type of food that has been mashed and ground into a fine paste. Also refers to the product produced by this technique.
A French term meaning ‘pastry chef’. Refers to a chef who specializes in making pastries, desserts, and breads among other baked goods.
A pie or loaf made up of rich forcemeat containing liver. Often includes other ingredients like game, poultry, seafood, and/or vegetables, baked into a pastry or in a mold or dish.
A name used to refer to a larger hard-shell typically used for chowder or fritters.
A light and smooth mixture of creamed forcemeat (usually chicken, veal, seafood, or game) bound with eggs that is shaped in an oval.
Refers to any bread made with chemical leaveners as opposed to yeast. Also called batter bread.
A highly seasoned stew typically served as a main dish.
A small, ceramic, ovenproof bowl used for cooking and serving various dishes, including crème brûlée, French onion soup, and molten chocolate to name a few. Also spelled ‘ramequin’.
A large refrigeration unit, or set of units, with pass-through doors used to house different types of ingredients and to keep food items cool. Often situated at arms length or walking distance from the cooking area.
The process of thickening and intensifying the flavor of a liquid by decreasing its volume through simmering or boiling.
The byproduct of reducing a liquid..
The act of quickly immersing an item into cold water or cold running water after blanching to prevent further cooking and to retain its color. Also known as shock.
A traditional Italian rice dish created by briefly sauteing rice in butter and adding onions and possibly other aromatics combined with stock until the mix reaches a creamy consistency.
A method of cooking food in an oven or on a spit over an open fire.
The fully ripe internal egg masses of a fish or shellfish.
To flatten with a rolling pin. Could also refer to a roll of bread.
A marinade made from a combination of spices and herbs applied to foods by physically smearing the ingredients unto the surface of the food itself.
Refers to the conditions relating health, safety, and cleanliness of a certain area.
The act of eliminating possible contaminants and pathogenic organisms in the cooking area.
A Japanese delicacy made up of raw fish delicately sliced and served with condiments such as a daikon radish, pickled ginger, wasabi, and soy sauce.
A liquid condiment used to accompany a meal and give added flavor.
Also known as a sauté chef or sauce chef. They are responsible for preparing sauces, sauté meals, and stews.
A meat product made from seasoned ground meat and meat byproducts shaped into cylindrical patties or links.
The act of frying something quickly in a small amount of fat in a pan.
A flavor that is not sweet and is either salty, spicy, or both.
The act of heating up a liquid, usually milk or cream, to temperatures just below the boiling point.
The act of measuring the weight of ingredients. Also refers to the act of removing the scales from fish when dressing.
A tool used in scraping scales off of a fish. Normally done from tail to head.
A name given to indicate any sort of saltwater clam or bivalve mollusk. Could also refer to a thin slice of meat.
A cooking method done to assure that a food item is evenly cooked by cutting its surface into regular intervals.
A mush of pork scraps, trimmings, buckwheat, and cornmeal.
Salt that was harvested by evaporating seawater.
A cooking technique that involves browning the surface of a food item in fat over high heat before finishing off with another method for added flavor.
A cooking process that involves done to give food a desired flavor by adding a certain ingredient or ingredients. Also refers to the process by which a protective coating is built up on the interior of a pan.
A frozen dessert made with fruit juice or another flavoring, syrup or other types of sweetener, and beaten egg whites added to milk or cream.
Creating individual strips by rubbing against a rough surface with medium to large perforations.
To cook in a liquid whose temperature is kept at just below boiling point.
To cut into thin pieces which are of the same size and typically shape.
The French word for sherbert. A frozen dessert made with fruit juice or another flavoring, syrup or other types of sweetener, and beaten egg whites added to milk or cream.
A French word which literally translates to “puffed.” It is a baked egg dish made from whipped egg whites, and flavorings.
Leavened yeast dough with a fermented starter as opposed to fresh yeast.
They are the second in command in the kitchen directly under the head chef or executive chef.
An aromatic vegetable substance used for flavoring.
A light and fluffy dessert made from sweet batter made from eggs, flour, and sugar.
A round pan that features sides that can be removed from the base. Used for making cheesecakes, trifles, and cakes with loose toppings.
Highly condensed and soft noodles made from dropping bits of a prepared batter into simmering liquid.
A method of slow cooking meat, poultry or fish with vegetables, herbs, spices in a liquid like water or stock collectively contained in a covered pot. Also refers to a dish prepared through the stewing method.
The process of cooking food over very high heat, using little fat or oil and stirred or mixed constantly. Usually this is done in a wok.
A flavorful liquid used as a base for soups, sauces, and other cooking preparations. It is prepared by simmering meat, poultry, seafood, and/or vegetables in water with other seasonings until their flavor is extracted.
The most common type of cooking pot. It isa large, straight-sided pot that is taller than it is wide. Typically used for making stocks and soups.
The process of separating solids from liquids by use of a mesh scooper called a strainer.
A sweet or savory pie lacking a top crust. Could also refer to a sour almost fruity flavor.
A Japanese seafood dish and/or vegetable dish that involves coating the food item with a light batter and later deep-fried.
A beef or pork cut from the most tender part of the loin.
A traditional French cuisine consisting of a loaf of forcemeat or aspic, similar to a pate, but cooked in a covered mold in a bain-marie.
A cooking method of lightly browning a food item in the oven or toaster.
To lightly and gently mix.
A single-shelled mollusk, like snails and sea urchins.
A dish made of leavened pancake-like batter or dough cooked into a crisp in a specialized griddle that gives the finished product the signature grid-like textured pattern that waffles are known for.
Very large and insulated refrigeration units that are large enough to walk into.
A cooking utensil made up of looped wires that form into a teardrop shape, joined together with a long handle and used to mix ingredients. Also refers to the act of using a whisk in order to mix ingredients, also known as whipping.
A variation of chocolate mainly consisting of cocoa butter flavored with sugar and milk solids. The finished product does not appear brown like regular chocolate as it does not contain any cocoa solids.
Flour derived from grinding or milling the whole grain of wheat, including the bran and germ.
A large, edible, and starchy tuber that grows in tropical and subtropical climates known for its characteristically yellowish purple hue.
Microscopic fungus used in cooking and baking for its metabolic processes. It is essential in creating food and drink created through fermentation such as cheese, beer, and wine. It is also used for leavening bread.
A milk product created through culturing milk with bacteria in order to achieve its slightly thick consistency and sour flavor.
Refers to the thin, brightly colored outer skin of citrus rind which is scraped off and used for flavoring.